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(n.) A uniform protocol that defines communication between devices. Standards are established to reduce incompatibility between competitive technologies. They are often developed by a committee belonging to an industry association, such as the ISO. The Electronics Industries Association (EIA) sets RS standards. ANSI standards for data communications usually begin with the letter X, as in X3.4-1967, the ASCII code standard. The ITU-T, formerly known as the CCITT, publishes recommendations, such as the V.x series, rather than standards. These recommendations refer to data transfer over telephone lines.